Archive for October, 2012

October 10, 2012

Penggunaan Gerund dan Infinitives

Gerund, adalah verb yang diikuti oleh -ing :

  • After certain verbs – I enjoy singing
  • After prepositions – I drank a cup of coffee before leaving
  • As the subject or object of a sentence – Swimming is good exercise

Infinitive, adalah verb yang di awalai oleh “to”, penggunaan infinitive:

  • After certain verbs – We decided to leave
  • After many adjectives – It’s difficult to get up early
  • To show purpose – I came to London to study English

We use the bare infinitive (the infinitive without ‘to’):

  • After modal verbs – I can meet you at six o’clock
  • After ‘let’, ‘make’ and (sometimes) ‘help’ – The teacher let us leave early
  • After some verbs of perception (see, watch, hear, notice, feel, sense) – I watched her walk away
  • After expressions with ‘why’ – why go out the night before an exam?
October 7, 2012

Membuat “Relative Clause”

relative pronoun use example
who menerangkan orang (person) sebagai subject atau object I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which menerangkan benda (thing) sebagai subject atau object Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
which referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose menerangkan person/ thing sebagai pemilik (menggantikan my, our, your, his, her, their, its) Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whom menerangkan orang (person) sebagai object (menggunakan me, you, us, him, her, them, its) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
that subject / object pronoun for people / things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Subject Pronoun atau Object Pronoun?

Jika relative pronoun diikuti oleh Verb, relative pronoun adalah subject pronoun. Subject pronoun harus digunakan, tidak dapat dihilangkan.

  • The monkey who is eating on the tree

Jika relative pronoun diikuti oleh  noun atau pronoun, adalah object pronoun. Object pronoun dapat dihilangkan.

  • we have dog (that) is 5 years old
  • The film (which) we watched yesterday was fantastic
  • The writer (who/whom) we met last weekend is very famous

Defining Relative Clauses

– Memungkinkan menghilangkan relative pronoun

  • This is the skirt that i bought in the sales
  • This is the skirt which i bought in the sales
  • This is the skirt i bought in the sales

Pada kalimat , ‘skirt’ adalah object dari verb (buy) . ‘I’ adalah subject . Ketika relative pronoun adalah object , maka bisa dihilangkan.

  • The film that we saw last week was awful -> The film we saw last week was awful

Tapi pada The dog that/which bit my mother , tidak bisa di karena dog adalah subject dari verb, ‘bite’.

Defining Relative Clauses

1. Restrictive (identifying or defining) relative clauses give detailed necessary information. They are not put between commas.
I know the man who is standing there
2. These clauses are often used in definitions.
A novelist is someone who writes novels.
3. Object pronouns in these clauses can be omitted (dropped.)
The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is from New York.

Non-Defining relative clauses:

Non- restrictive (non-identifying or non- defining) relative clauses give interesting additional information which is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. These clauses are put between commas.
Martin Luther king, who was known for his fight for the civil rights, was assassinated in 1968.

1. who/which may not be replaced with that.
Jim, who we met yesterday, is very nice.
Jim, that we met yesterday, is very nice.
2. Object relative pronouns cannot be dropped.
Jim, who we met yesterday, is very nice.
Jim,we met yesterday, is very nice.