Archive for September 16th, 2012

September 16, 2012

Menggunakan Modals – English Grammar

1) Can

Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to) I can speak English.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) Can I go to the cinema?
request Can you wait a moment, please?
offer I can lend you my car till tomorrow.
suggestion Can we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility It can get very hot in Arizona.

2) could

Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to) I could speak English.
permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to) I could go to the cinema.
polite question * Could I go to the cinema, please?
polite request * Could you wait a moment, please?
polite offer * I could lend you my car till tomorrow.
polite suggestion * Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility * It could get very hot in Montana.

3) may

Use Examples
possibility It may rain today.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) May I go to the cinema?
polite suggestion May I help you?

4) might

Use Examples
possibility (less possible than may) * It might rain today.
hesitant offer * Might I help you?

5) Must (subjective obligation)

Use Examples
force, necessity I must go to the supermarket today.
possibility You must be tired.
advice, recommendation You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.

– Must tidak dapat diikuti oleh to, contoh :
1. I Must go now (bukan I must to go now)
– Must, mengekspresikan personal obligation. Must menyampaikan apa yang dikatakan subject/speaker adalah neccesary. contoh:
1. You must stop smoking (the obligation adalah opini atau ide dari subject/ orang yang berbicara)
– Must digunakan untuk present atau future, untuk past biasanya menggunakan have to.

6) must not/may not

Use Examples
prohibition You mustn’t work on dad’s computer.
You may not work on dad’s computer.

– Kita dapat menggunakan must not untuk present atau future
– Untuk bentuk past, menggunakan struktur yang laen , contoh:
1. We were not allowed to enter
2. I couldn’t park inside the top

7) need not

Use Examples
not necessary I needn’t go to the supermarket, we’re going to the restaurant tonight.

8) ought to

Use Examples
advice You ought to drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.

9) shall

instead of will in the 1st person

Use Examples
suggestion Shall I carry your bag?

10) should

Use Examples
advice You should drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation You should switch off the light when you leave the room.

11) will

Use Examples
wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would) Will you please shut the door?
prediction, assumption I think it will rain on Friday.
promise I will stop smoking.
spontaneous decision Can somebody drive me to the station? – I will.
habits She’s strange, she‘ll sit for hours without talking.

12) would

Use Examples
wish, request (more polite than will) Would you shut the door, please?
habits in the past Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.

* no past forms – future forms

13) Have to (Objective obligation)

– Have to dapat digunakan di semua tenses
– Have to bukan merupakan modal verb
– Umumnya have to mengungkapkan impersonal obligation.
– Subject dari have to diharuskan untuk melakukan sesuatu berdasarkan , misal : hukum atau aturan sekolah. contoh :
1. In France, you have to drive on the right.
2. In Indonesia, most schoolchildren have to wear a uniform.
Pada contoh diatas, the obligation bukan merupakan ide dari subject, tetapi dari aturan.

  subject auxiliary verb main verb have infinitive  
past simple I   had to work yesterday.
present simple I   have to work today.
future simple I will have to work tomorrow.
present continuous She is having to wait.  
present perfect We have had to change the time.
modal (may) They may have to do it again.
Advertisements
September 16, 2012

Menggunakan Kalimat Pengandaian (Conditional Sentences)

Conditional Clause dan Main Clause

Conditional clause Main clause
1. If + Present Tense will + inf / present tense / imperative
2. If + Past Tense would + inf
3. If + Past Perfect would have + past participle

Penggunaan Conditional

1. First Conditional
– Sifat : kondisi yang dinyatakan bersifat possible dan tidak mengarang-ngarang.
– Waktu : kondisi ini merujuk pada present atau future time.
contoh : if he don’t have rice, i will eat noodle
(jika dia tidak mempunyai nasi saya akan makan bakmi)

Contoh :

  1. If you help me with the dishes (if + present),
    I will help you with your homework. (will + inf)
  2. If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by three,
    the number is divisible by three (Present. tense)
  3. If you see Mr Fox tonight, tell him I am ill. (imperative).
  4. If i become president, i will built international stadium in Bali

2. Second Conditional
– Sifat : Bersifat unreal (impossible ) , kondisi yang tidak mungkin
– Waktu : Saat ini (Present). Tense yang digunakan adalah PAST, tapi kita sedang membicarakan situasi saat ini.

Contoh :
if i became president, i would built international stadium in Bali (dikatakan oleh seorang anak sekolahan. Tidak mungkin, karena waktu yang ditekankan pada kondisional ini adalah pada saat ini, bagaimana dia jadi presiden tamat sekolah aja blun )

3. Third Conditional
– Sifat : Tidak Real. Menyatakan pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi lagi karena kejadiannya sudah berlalu, kondisi ini biasanaya menggungkapkan penyesalan apa yang terjadi di masa lalu
– Waktu : Past.
Contoh : if you had sent me email last week, i would have called you
(jika kamu mengirimi saya email minggu lalu, saya akan memanggil kamu)