December 2, 2012

Apa arti “Gonna”

Gonna itu kependekan dari “Going to”. misal :

“I am going to eat” menjadi “i am gonna eat”

1st Person Singular I’m gonna go to the store.
2nd Person Singular You’re gonna go on vacation next year..
3rd Person Singular She’s gonna eat
1st Person Plural We’re gonna buy a computer
2nd Person Plural You guys are gonna have fun
3rd Person Plural They’re gonna eat

November 5, 2012

Preposition of place

The prepositions “in,” “at,” and “on” for indicating place and location.
The general rule :
1. “in” for an enclosed space.
2. “at” for a point.
3. “on” for a surface.

1. Usage of  “in”

  • Use “in” for spaces: “They always meet in a secret room [in a suburban hotel, in a parking lot, in a farm, in a ricefield].”
  • Use “in” for names of specific land areas: “She lives in a quiet town [in Tagaytay, in Cavite, in Southern Tagalog, in the island of Palawan, in the Philippines, in Southeast Asia].
  • Use “in” for bodies of water: “That kind of fish thrives in freshwater [in the river, in the lake, in streams, in the sea].”
  • Use “in” for lines: “The registrants are in a row [in a line, in a queue].

2. Usage of  “at”

  • Use “at” to indicate points: “You’ll find us at the entrance [at the taxi stand, at the supermarket, at the intersection].”
  • Use “at” for specific addresses, as in “She lives at 40 Lilac St.”

3. Usage of “on”

  • Use “on” for names of streets, roads, avenues, and boulevards: “Her apartment is on San Pablo Street [on Ortigas Avenue, on Santolan Road, on Roxas Boulevard].”
  • Use “on” for surfaces: “There’s a large stain on the floor [on the wall, on the ceiling, on the roof].”

The prepositions “in,” “at,” and “on” for indicating location.

Use “in” in these cases: “The children are in the kitchen [in the garden, in the car, in the library, in the class, in school]. (The article “the” is mandatory except for the fourth and last example.)

Use “at” in these particular cases: “She was at home [at the library, at the office, at school, at work] when we arrived.”

Use “on” in these particular cases: “They are on the plane [on the train, on the boat].”

Some locations, though, don’t need a preposition between them and the verb: “They sleep downstairs [inside, outside, downtown, upstairs, uptown].”

November 4, 2012

Perbedaan Been dan Being

Kata Been itu biasanya didahului oleh “have” (dalam berbagai form; had, has, will have), sedangkan Being tidak didahului oleh “Have” tapi digunakan setelah “to be” (e.g. is, am ,are, was, were).

Contoh:

I Have been busy.

Being sebagai Noun.
– A Human being.

October 10, 2012

Penggunaan Gerund dan Infinitives

Gerund, adalah verb yang diikuti oleh -ing :

  • After certain verbs – I enjoy singing
  • After prepositions – I drank a cup of coffee before leaving
  • As the subject or object of a sentence – Swimming is good exercise

Infinitive, adalah verb yang di awalai oleh “to”, penggunaan infinitive:

  • After certain verbs – We decided to leave
  • After many adjectives – It’s difficult to get up early
  • To show purpose – I came to London to study English

We use the bare infinitive (the infinitive without ‘to’):

  • After modal verbs – I can meet you at six o’clock
  • After ‘let’, ‘make’ and (sometimes) ‘help’ – The teacher let us leave early
  • After some verbs of perception (see, watch, hear, notice, feel, sense) – I watched her walk away
  • After expressions with ‘why’ – why go out the night before an exam?
October 7, 2012

Membuat “Relative Clause”

relative pronoun use example
who menerangkan orang (person) sebagai subject atau object I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which menerangkan benda (thing) sebagai subject atau object Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
which referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose menerangkan person/ thing sebagai pemilik (menggantikan my, our, your, his, her, their, its) Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whom menerangkan orang (person) sebagai object (menggunakan me, you, us, him, her, them, its) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
that subject / object pronoun for people / things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Subject Pronoun atau Object Pronoun?

Jika relative pronoun diikuti oleh Verb, relative pronoun adalah subject pronoun. Subject pronoun harus digunakan, tidak dapat dihilangkan.

  • The monkey who is eating on the tree

Jika relative pronoun diikuti oleh  noun atau pronoun, adalah object pronoun. Object pronoun dapat dihilangkan.

  • we have dog (that) is 5 years old
  • The film (which) we watched yesterday was fantastic
  • The writer (who/whom) we met last weekend is very famous

Defining Relative Clauses

– Memungkinkan menghilangkan relative pronoun

  • This is the skirt that i bought in the sales
  • This is the skirt which i bought in the sales
  • This is the skirt i bought in the sales

Pada kalimat , ‘skirt’ adalah object dari verb (buy) . ‘I’ adalah subject . Ketika relative pronoun adalah object , maka bisa dihilangkan.

  • The film that we saw last week was awful -> The film we saw last week was awful

Tapi pada The dog that/which bit my mother , tidak bisa di karena dog adalah subject dari verb, ‘bite’.

Defining Relative Clauses

1. Restrictive (identifying or defining) relative clauses give detailed necessary information. They are not put between commas.
I know the man who is standing there
2. These clauses are often used in definitions.
A novelist is someone who writes novels.
3. Object pronouns in these clauses can be omitted (dropped.)
Example:
The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is from New York.

Non-Defining relative clauses:

Non- restrictive (non-identifying or non- defining) relative clauses give interesting additional information which is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. These clauses are put between commas.
Example:
Martin Luther king, who was known for his fight for the civil rights, was assassinated in 1968.
Note:

1. who/which may not be replaced with that.
Example:
Jim, who we met yesterday, is very nice.
NOT
Jim, that we met yesterday, is very nice.
2. Object relative pronouns cannot be dropped.
Example:
Jim, who we met yesterday, is very nice.
NOT
Jim,we met yesterday, is very nice.

September 24, 2012

Membuat Polite Request

Asking for permission

Asking Saying Yes/OK Saying No
Can I ..? Yes, Sure. Well, i’m afraid (+reason) ..
Could I .. ? Yes, of course
Is it all right if I.. ? That’s fine
Do You Mind if I + Verb 1 ? No/No, not at all /Not at all/Of course not/No, I’d be happy to/
No at all, I’d be glad to
Sorry, but..
Would you mind if I..? verb 2

Making Request

Asking Saying Yes/OK Saying No
Can You..? Yes, Sure. Well, i’m afraid (+reason) ..
Could You .. ? Yes, of course
Is it all right if I.. ? That’s fine
Do You think you could ..? Certainly Well, the problem is that..
Will you..? Sorry, but..
Do you mind -ing No/No, not at all /Not at all/Of course not/No, I’d be happy to/
No at all, I’d be glad to
Would you mind -ing

Ingat!
1. Could/ Would you ? lebih sopan dibandingkan Can/ Will you.

2. Would you mind..? dan Do you mind..? berarti apakah masalah buat kamu? jadi jawaban yang sopan adalah “No, not at all atau Of course not”

3. Kita dapat menggunakan “Do you mind…?” untuk menanyakan pendapat atau perasaan seseorang. “Would you mind…?” tidak digunakan untuk tujuan ini.

contoh : Do you mind people smoking in public places? / Do you mind if people smoke in public places?

(bukan  “Would you mind people smoking in public places?”)

4. “Would you mind” diikuti oleh gerund.

contoh: Would you mind closing the door ?..

I don’t want to cause you any trouble, but would
You please close the door?
Would that cause you any inconvenience?

– Would you mind not smoking inside?

– “Would you please explain this to me?”  mempunyai arti :
If you don’t mind, please explain this to me?

5. Would you mind + IF + I + V2

– “Would you mind if I” is followed by the simple past.

contoh : – Would you mind if I closed the door? (Formal)

pertanyaan diatas mempunyai arti :

May I close the door?
Is it all right if I close the door?
Will it cause you any trouble or discomfort if I close the door?

September 16, 2012

Menggunakan Modals – English Grammar

1) Can

Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to) I can speak English.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) Can I go to the cinema?
request Can you wait a moment, please?
offer I can lend you my car till tomorrow.
suggestion Can we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility It can get very hot in Arizona.

2) could

Use Examples
ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to) I could speak English.
permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to) I could go to the cinema.
polite question * Could I go to the cinema, please?
polite request * Could you wait a moment, please?
polite offer * I could lend you my car till tomorrow.
polite suggestion * Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility * It could get very hot in Montana.

3) may

Use Examples
possibility It may rain today.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) May I go to the cinema?
polite suggestion May I help you?

4) might

Use Examples
possibility (less possible than may) * It might rain today.
hesitant offer * Might I help you?

5) Must (subjective obligation)

Use Examples
force, necessity I must go to the supermarket today.
possibility You must be tired.
advice, recommendation You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.

– Must tidak dapat diikuti oleh to, contoh :
1. I Must go now (bukan I must to go now)
– Must, mengekspresikan personal obligation. Must menyampaikan apa yang dikatakan subject/speaker adalah neccesary. contoh:
1. You must stop smoking (the obligation adalah opini atau ide dari subject/ orang yang berbicara)
– Must digunakan untuk present atau future, untuk past biasanya menggunakan have to.

6) must not/may not

Use Examples
prohibition You mustn’t work on dad’s computer.
You may not work on dad’s computer.

– Kita dapat menggunakan must not untuk present atau future
– Untuk bentuk past, menggunakan struktur yang laen , contoh:
1. We were not allowed to enter
2. I couldn’t park inside the top

7) need not

Use Examples
not necessary I needn’t go to the supermarket, we’re going to the restaurant tonight.

8) ought to

Use Examples
advice You ought to drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.

9) shall

instead of will in the 1st person

Use Examples
suggestion Shall I carry your bag?

10) should

Use Examples
advice You should drive carefully in bad weather.
obligation You should switch off the light when you leave the room.

11) will

Use Examples
wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would) Will you please shut the door?
prediction, assumption I think it will rain on Friday.
promise I will stop smoking.
spontaneous decision Can somebody drive me to the station? – I will.
habits She’s strange, she‘ll sit for hours without talking.

12) would

Use Examples
wish, request (more polite than will) Would you shut the door, please?
habits in the past Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.

* no past forms – future forms

13) Have to (Objective obligation)

– Have to dapat digunakan di semua tenses
– Have to bukan merupakan modal verb
– Umumnya have to mengungkapkan impersonal obligation.
– Subject dari have to diharuskan untuk melakukan sesuatu berdasarkan , misal : hukum atau aturan sekolah. contoh :
1. In France, you have to drive on the right.
2. In Indonesia, most schoolchildren have to wear a uniform.
Pada contoh diatas, the obligation bukan merupakan ide dari subject, tetapi dari aturan.

  subject auxiliary verb main verb have infinitive  
past simple I   had to work yesterday.
present simple I   have to work today.
future simple I will have to work tomorrow.
present continuous She is having to wait.  
present perfect We have had to change the time.
modal (may) They may have to do it again.
September 16, 2012

Menggunakan Kalimat Pengandaian (Conditional Sentences)

Conditional Clause dan Main Clause

Conditional clause Main clause
1. If + Present Tense will + inf / present tense / imperative
2. If + Past Tense would + inf
3. If + Past Perfect would have + past participle

Penggunaan Conditional

1. First Conditional
– Sifat : kondisi yang dinyatakan bersifat possible dan tidak mengarang-ngarang.
– Waktu : kondisi ini merujuk pada present atau future time.
contoh : if he don’t have rice, i will eat noodle
(jika dia tidak mempunyai nasi saya akan makan bakmi)

Contoh :

  1. If you help me with the dishes (if + present),
    I will help you with your homework. (will + inf)
  2. If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by three,
    the number is divisible by three (Present. tense)
  3. If you see Mr Fox tonight, tell him I am ill. (imperative).
  4. If i become president, i will built international stadium in Bali

2. Second Conditional
– Sifat : Bersifat unreal (impossible ) , kondisi yang tidak mungkin
– Waktu : Saat ini (Present). Tense yang digunakan adalah PAST, tapi kita sedang membicarakan situasi saat ini.

Contoh :
if i became president, i would built international stadium in Bali (dikatakan oleh seorang anak sekolahan. Tidak mungkin, karena waktu yang ditekankan pada kondisional ini adalah pada saat ini, bagaimana dia jadi presiden tamat sekolah aja blun )

3. Third Conditional
– Sifat : Tidak Real. Menyatakan pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi lagi karena kejadiannya sudah berlalu, kondisi ini biasanaya menggungkapkan penyesalan apa yang terjadi di masa lalu
– Waktu : Past.
Contoh : if you had sent me email last week, i would have called you
(jika kamu mengirimi saya email minggu lalu, saya akan memanggil kamu)

September 6, 2012

Membuat kalimat “Passive Voice”

infinitive to be washed
simple present It is washed.
past It was washed.
future It will be washed.
conditional It would be washed.
continuous present It is being washed.
past It was being washed.
future It will be being washed.
conditional It would be being washed.
perfect simple present It has been washed.
past It had been washed.
future It will have been washed.
conditional It would have been washed.
perfect continuous present It has been being washed.
past It had been being washed.
future It will have been being washed.
conditional It would have been being washed.
July 26, 2012

Sanur Beach at the morning

Hi all,, last week at Saturday morning i went to the Sanur Beach by bicycle,, i just wanna share to you some picture that i captured😀

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